Recent Publications

See below for a list of our most current publications. Unfortunately, many of these are published in academic journals with paywalls. We are happy to share these with you if you are interested — feel free to email our research collaborator Rachel ( for a PDF copy of any paper!

Local and landscape scale woodland cover and diversification of agroecological practices shape butterfly communities in tropical smallholder landscapes
in Journal of Applied Ecology

Cassandra Vogel, Vera Mayer, Mwapi Mkandawire, Georg Küstner, Rachel Bezner Kerr, Jochen Krauss, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter


  1. The conversion of biodiversity-rich woodland to farmland and subsequent management has strong, often negative, impacts on biodiversity. In tropical smallholder agricultural landscapes, the impacts of agriculture on insect communities, both through habitat change and subsequent farmland management, is understudied. The use of agroecological practices has social and agronomic benefits for smallholders. Although ecological co-benefits of agroecological practices are assumed, systematic empirical assessments of biodiversity effects of agroecological practices are missing, particularly in Africa.
  2. In Malawi, we assessed butterfly abundance, species richness, species assemblages and community life-history traits on 24 paired woodland and smallholder-managed farmland sites located across a gradient of woodland cover within a 1 km radius. We tested whether habitat type (woodland vs. farmland) and woodland cover at the landscape scale interactively shaped butterfly communities. Farms varied in the implementation of agroecological pest and soil management practices and flowering plant species richness.
  3. Farmland had lower butterfly abundances and approximately half the species richness than woodland. Farmland butterfly communities had, on average, a larger wingspan than woodland site communities. Surprisingly, higher woodland cover in the landscape had no effect on butterfly abundance in both habitats. In contrast, species richness was higher with higher woodland cover. Butterfly species assemblages were distinct between wood- and farmland and shifted across the woodland cover gradient.
  4. Farmland butterfly abundance, but not species richness, was higher with higher flowering plant species richness on farms. Farms with a higher number of agroecological pest management practices had a lower abundance of the dominant butterfly species, but not of rarer species. However, a larger number of agroecological soil management practices was associated with a higher abundance of rarer species.
  5. Synthesis and applications: We show that diversified agroecological soil practices and flowering plant richness enhanced butterfly abundance on farms. However, our results suggest that on-farm measures cannot compensate for the negative effects of continued woodland conversion. Therefore, we call for more active protection of remaining African woodlands in tandem with promoting agroecological soil management practices and on-farm flowering plant richness to conserve butterflies while benefiting smallholders.

Meet Lizzie Shumba: Advancing Nutrition, climate Adaptation, and gender justice in Malawi.
in Perspectives in Agroecology Transitions- No. 4

Blume, S., & Bucini, G. (2022). Meet Lizzie Shumba: Advancing nutrition, climate adaptation, and gender justice in Malawi. Perspectives on Agroecology Transitions – No. 4. Agroecology and Livelihoods Collaborative (ALC), University of Vermont.

We interviewed Lizzie Shumba who works directly with communities in northern Malawi to facilitate and support agroecological transitions. Lizzie narrated how agroecology came to be a focus of her work and highlighted its potential as a people-centered and equitable movement. Her story tells of how she moved from a focus on malnutrition to tackling themes of nutrition, gender, and farmer-led research and offers inspiration for anyone seeking to support agroecology in their own context” (Blume & Bucini 2022).

Does Crop Diversity Influence Household Food Security and Women’s Individual Dietary Diversity? A Cross-Sectional Study of Malawian Farmers in a Participatory Agroecology and Nutrition Project
in Food and Nutrition Bulletin

Ibukun Owoputi, Nola Booth, Isaac Luginaah, Hanson Nyantakyi-Frimpong, Lizzie Shumba, Laifolo Dakishoni, Esther Lupafya, Catherine Hickey, and Rachel BeznerKerr



Agroecological methods have the potential to impact nutrition and food security, however, to date there is limited research evaluating this approach.


A 5-year participatory research project with farming households in north and central Malawi was designed to train farmers on agroecological practices, alongside raising awareness on nutrition and gender equity. This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the relationships between crop diversity, food security at the household level, and individual diversity for women, within the context of an agroecology, nutrition education, and farmer mentoring program.


Participating farmers were trained in and experimented with different farming methods. These farmers subsequently trained other farmers on these short-term agroecological practices and provided mentorship using community-based educational methods designed to address both household food security and nutrition. In year 4 of the intervention, a cross-sectional survey assessed farm practices, food security, and individual dietary diversity of 851 participating households.


Households with lower crop diversity were significantly less likely to be food secure (odds ratios [OR] = 0.829, P < .001). Women in households with higher crop diversity were more likely to have higher individual dietary diversity (OR = 1.120, P < .01), eat vitamin A rich foods (OR = 1.176, P < .01), and legumes, nuts, and seeds (OR = 1.141, P < .01).


These findings suggest that within a participatory agroecological training combined with community-based nutrition education with a focus on social equity, crop diversity is associated with less household food insecurity and poorer diet quality for rural farming households. Crop diversity may improve dietary diversity by making nutritious foods more available.

Assessing Local Perceptions of Deforestation, Forest Restoration, and the Role of Agroecology for Agroecosystem Restoration in northern Malawi (2022).
in Land Degradation and Development

Kpienbaareh, D., I. Luginaah, R. Bezner Kerr, J. Wang, K. Poveda, I. Steffan-Dewenter, E. Lupafya and L. Dakishoni.


Deforestation drives climate change and reinforces food insecurity in forest-dependent communities. What drives deforestation varies by location and is shaped by livelihood systems. But how locals perceive restoration is crucial for developing restoration policies. Evidence suggests that applying sustainable farming strategies can potentially restore forests and sustain livelihoods. Applying a broad-based conceptualization of deforestation and restoration in policymaking, however, results in missed opportunities for addressing deforestation and restoration. Here, we explore the drivers of deforestation, the perceptions of restoration, and the challenges to restoration among smallholder farmers in northern Malawi and examine how agroecology can contribute to restoring degraded agroecosystems. Participants report agricultural land expansion, charcoal production, climate change, burnt brick production, and government subsidies as the major drivers of deforestation. We observed that although perceptions of forest restoration reflect farmers’ traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) to include reclamation of degraded farmlands, reconstruction of native tree species, and replacement of felled trees on farmlands, there are challenges including splitting families to gain access to more subsidized fertilizers and food aid, embedded cultural practices, growing demand for charcoal in cities, and weak ecosystem governance structures that hinder the effectiveness of restoration efforts. We, however, do find that agroecological intensification can increase yield from smaller farmlands and allow for larger and longer-lasting fallows of spare lands which regenerate forests. Key overarching implications of these findings include the need to integrate livelihoods more explicitly into restoration plans, accounting for TEK in restoration policies in forest-dependent communities and encouraging the adoption of agroecology.

Transdisciplinary agroecological research on biodiversity and ecosystem services for sustainable and climate resilient farming systems in Malawi (2022).
in Advances in Ecological Research

Kpienbaareh, D., Bezner Kerr, R., D. Amoak, T. Chunga, Laifolo Dakishoni, S. Enloe, T. Gondwe, A. Iverson, P. Kanyimbo, G. Küstner, E. Lupafya, I. Luginaah, T. Mehreteab,V. Mayer, I. Mhoni, M. Mkandawire, T. Mkandawire, P. Moyo, P. Munthali, U. S. Nagothu, H. Nyantakyi-Frimpong, K. Poveda, L. Shumba, I. Steffan-Dewenter, Y. Tembo, C. Vogel, J. Wang.


How can agroecological research methods effectively engage smallholder farmers, who provide over half of the world’s food supply, and whose farm management activities have significant impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services? This question is highly relevant in Malawi where the research took place, but in other low-income countries in Africa with mostly agrarian populations, in which multi-scalar processes drive high food insecurity, alongside declining biodiversity, worsening land degradation and climate change. We analyse an innovative transdisciplinary agroecological approach that attempts to bridge the science-practice-policy gap by examining the potential of agroecological measures to enhance functional biodiversity and ecosystem services. This study involves a longitudinal, case-control and participatory research design in a region where thousands of farmers have experimented with agroecological practices, e.g., legume intercropping, composting, and botanical sprays. Innovative transdisciplinary agroecological research activities involved farmer participatory research, ecological monitoring and field experiments, social science methods (both qualitative and quantitative), participatory methodologies (public participatory Geographic Information Systems – PPGIS and scenario planning and testing) and stakeholder engagement to foster science-policy linkages. We discuss the theoretical and methodological implications of this novel transdisciplinary and participatory approach about pluralism, decolonial and translational ecological research to foster sustainability and climate resilience of tropical farming systems.

Agroecology and household production diversity and dietary diversity: Evidence from a five-year agroecological intervention in rural Malawi (2021)
in Social Science and Medicine

Moses Mosonsieyiri Kansanga, Joseph Kangmennaang, Rachel Bezner Kerr, Esther Lupafya,
Laifolo Dakishoni, Isaac Luginaah

(Available Online)


Following a decade of declining food insecurity, the global undernourished population has increased successively in the last three years. This increasing trend highlights the challenge of meeting the zero hunger and nutrition targets of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 2. Malawi is one of the most food insecure countries in Africa, with a significant proportion of its population being undernourished. Amid evidence of the counter-productive effects of input-intensive agriculture in this context, including the narrowing of the food basket and unequal access to subsidized inputs, some scholars have argued that alternative diversified agricultural approaches, combined with attention to underlying inequalities, maybe more promising in addressing undernutrition. Agroecology is one such approach which promotes biodiversity and pays attention to socio-political inequalities. That notwithstanding, there is limited research on the potential role of agroecology in improving household food outcomes. Drawing theoretical insights from political ecology and using Difference-in-Difference and mediation techniques, we examine the impact of agroecology on household production diversity and dietary diversity using data from a five-year agroecological intervention in Malawi (n = 514 agroecology-practicing farming households and 400 non-agroecology households). Findings from the Difference-in-Difference analysis show a positive treatment effect of agroecology on both production diversity (β = 0.289, p < 0.01) and dietary diversity (β = 0.390, p < 0.01). Results from the mediation analysis indicate that generally, production diversity is directly associated with dietary diversity (β = 0.18, p < 0.01), although the relationship is stronger for households practicing agroecology (β = 0.19, p < 0.01) compared to non-agroecology households (β = 0.14, p < 0.01). These findings provide evidence of the potential for agroecology to improve nutrition in smallholder farming contexts and contribute to achieving SDGs 2. Malawi is currently grappling with widespread micronutrient deficiencies. Given that smallholder farmers typically draw a significant proportion of their diet from what they produce, farming approaches like agroecology, which emphasizes the cultivation of diverse crops, may be promising for improving household nutrition.

Explaining the impact of agroecology on farm-level transitions to food security in Malawi. (2021)
In Food Security

Sidney Madsen, Rachel Bezner Kerr, Noelle LaDue, Isaac Luginaah, Chipiliro Dzanja, Laifolo Dakishoni, Esther Lupafya, Lizzie Shumba and Catherine Hickey

(Available Online)


How does agroecology influence household food security? While previous studies have found that adopting agroecological practices can have a positive effect on smallholder household food security, there is limited understanding of how this transition occurs. This mixed-methods study draws on data from an ongoing agroecology project in Malawi to engage with debates about if and how an agricultural paradigm shift can contribute to smallholder food security. Researchers interviewed 60 farmer participants of an agroecology intervention to examine the mechanisms by which recent adoption of crop diversification and soil management practices had altered household access to a stable, adequate and diverse diet. Results from mixed-effects regression analysis of a case-controlled panel survey (n = 537) corroborated respondents’ reports that participating in agroecological trainings and farmer discussion groups had increased food security. Interviews indicated that, consistent with food security pathways literature, farmers were using direct-consumption and agricultural income pathways to improve food security. Furthermore, respondents were following food security pathways based on altering their production relations so as to regain control over their farming inputs, namely seed, fertilizer, land, and labor. In addition, we found that the agroecological approaches reinforced and widened existing social support practices such as food and seed sharing, fundamental to long-term community food security. The results presented in this paper provide evidence of the effectiveness of multifaceted participatory agroecological interventions to support transitions to food security based on environmentally sustainable farming practices.

Managing the new kapuchi: photovoice as a method for co-constructing knowledge in northern Malawi. (2021)
In Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems

Stephanie K. Enloe, David Banda, Pressings Moyo, Laifolo Dakishoni, Rodgers Msachi & Rachel Bezner Kerr

(Available Online)


A transdisciplinary project examining agroecological management alternatives in Malawi utilized mixed methods to learn from and about farmer knowledge of biodiversity. Wild biodiversity was assessed on 96 farms within a study area of 16 villages. Forty-two farmers from the 96 farms were involved in the photovoice sub-study discussed here. They received camera training then took photographs of plants and animals that were meaningful to them; subsequently 42 interviews were conducted with farmers to discuss the photos and elicit greater understanding of their perceptions about insects and pest management. Workshops were then utilized to discuss findings, facilitate horizontal knowledge exchange among project stakeholders, and encourage farmers to co-design experiments testing ecological management strategies. The photographs were used in the workshops to expand knowledge about pests and natural enemies. Combining photovoice interviews with workshops and field visits supported a process of co-constructing agroecological knowledge.

Does participatory farmer-to-farmer training improve the adoption of sustainable land management practices? (2021)
In Land Use Policy

Moses Mosonsieyiri Kansanga, Rachel Bezner Kerr, Esther Lupafya, Laifolo Dakishoni and Isaac Luginaah

(Available Online)


Human-induced land degradation currently threatens the livelihoods of over 3 billion people globally. While Sustainable Land Management (SLM) has emerged as a widely accepted approach for addressing land degradation in agroecosystems, the use of SLM practices remains low among smallholder farmers. Empirical research points to the potentially beneficial role of participatory farmer-to-farmer (F2F) training and knowledge sharing in improving SLM in resource-poor contexts. Drawing theoretical insights from social learning and using cross-sectional data from an agroecology intervention with smallholder farming households in Malawi (n = 609 farming households, comprising 463 households that received F2F training in agroecology and 146 households that did not receive F2F training), we examine the association between participatory agroecology training and the adoption of SLM practices. Findings from tobit regression analysis show that F2F training was positively associated with the use of SLM practices (β = 0.04 p < 0.05) two years following the intervention after accounting for demographic, agricultural and socioeconomic factors. These findings contribute to a growing body of literature that demonstrates the potential of participatory F2F training to improve the uptake and maintenance of SLM technologies. In the context of resource constraints and the associated low agricultural extension in sub-Saharan Africa, participatory F2F training may offer a cost-effective way to reach a wide range of smallholder farmers to promote the use of SLM practices.

Spatial and Ecological Farmer Knowledge and Decision-Making about Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity (2020)
In Land

Daniel Kpienbaareh, Rachel Bezner Kerr, Isaac Luginaah, Jinfei Wang, Esther Lupafya, Laifolo Dakishoni and Lizzie Shumba.

(Available online)

Amid climate change, biodiversity loss and food insecurity, there is the growing need to draw synergies between micro-scale environmental processes and practices, and macro-level ecosystem dynamics to facilitate conservation decision-making. Adopting this synergistic approach can improve crop yields and profitability more sustainably, enhance livelihoods and mitigate climate change. Using spatially explicit data generated through a public participatory geographic information system methodology (n = 37), complemented by spatial analysis, interviews (n = 68) and focus group discussions (n = 4), we explored the synergies between participatory farmer-to-farmer agroecology knowledge sharing, farm-level decisions and their links with macro-level prioritization of conservation strategies. We mapped farm conditions and ecosystem services (ES) of two village areas with varying knowledge systems about farming. Results of the farm-level analysis revealed variations in spatial perception among farmers, differences in understanding the dynamics of crop growth and varying priorities for extension services based on agroecological knowledge. The ES use pattern analysis revealed hotspots in the mapped ES indicators with similarities in both village areas. Despite the similarities in ES use, priorities for biodiversity conservation align with farmers’ understanding of farm processes and practices. Farmers with training in agroecology prioritized strategies that are ecologically friendly while farmers with no agroecology training prioritized the use of strict regulations. Importantly, the results show that agroecology can potentially contribute to biodiversity conservation and food security, with climate change mitigation co-benefits. The findings generally contribute to debates on land sparing and land sharing conservation strategies and advance social learning theory as it pertains to acquiring agroecological knowledge for improved yield and a sustainable environment.

Determinants of smallholder farmers’ adoption of short-term and long-term sustainable land management practices (2020)

Moses Mosonsieyiri Kansanga, Isaac Luginaah, Rachel Bezner Kerr, Laifolo Dakishoni & Esther Lupafya
Chapter published in Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems.

Despite increasing land degradation in sub-Saharan Africa, investment in sustainable land management (SLM) remains low. Empirical evidence show that smallholder farmers tend to prioritize investing in SLM practices with short-term turnover—e.g., composting and crop residue integration—in order to improve soil fertility and yields to the neglect of practices like agroforestry whose benefits tend to materialize in a relatively longer period. While it is crucial for farmers to prioritize both short-term and long-term SLM practices for the maintenance of overall ecosystem health, the factors that shape the concurrent adoption of short-term and long-term SLM practices remain underexplored. Using data from a cross-sectional survey with smallholder farming households (n = 512) in Malawi, we employed logistic regression to examine the determinants of the concurrent adoption of short-term and long-term SLM practices. Our findings show that plot size, farmer-to-farmer knowledge sharing, presence of a chronically ill person in the household, active household labor size, wealth and women’s autonomy are noteworthy determinants. A unit increase in plot size was associated with increased odds (OR = 1.41, p < 0.01) of simultaneously adopting short-term and long-term SLM practices. Similarly, a unit increase in the active labor size of the household (OR = 1.30, p < 0.001) was positively associated with the concurrent adoption of short-term and long-term SLM practices. Households with no chronically sick person were 3.2 times more likely to adopt short-term and long-term SLM practices simulataneously compared to those with chronically sick persons. Farming households that exchanged farming information (OR = 2.50, p < 0.001) with other households had significantly higher odds of adopting short-term and long-term SLM practices concurrently than those that did not share farming information. Compared to households in the poorest wealth category, those in the richer (OR = 3.14, p < 0.001) and richest (OR = 3.64, p < 0.001) wealth categories were both significantly more likely to adopt short-term and long-term SLM practices concurrently. These findings suggest that initiatives targeted at promoting the holistic adoption of SLM practices—a combination of both short-term and long-term practices—must pay attention to contextual nuances including household wealth, gender, farmer training and land access dynamics.

Agroecological practices of legume residue management and crop diversification for improved smallholder food security, dietary diversity and sustainable land use in Malawi (2020)

Sidney Madsen , Rachel Bezner Kerr , Lizzie Shumba & Laifolo Dakishoni on behalf of the SFHC team
Published in Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems.

The role of agroecological practices in addressing food security has had limited investigation, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Quasi-experimental methods were used to assess the role of agroecological practices in reducing food insecurity in small- holder households in Malawi. Two key practices – crop diversi- fication and the incorporation of organic matter into soil – were examined. The quasi-experimental study of an agroecological intervention included survey data from 303 households and in- depth interviews with 33 households. The survey sampled 210 intervention households participating in the agroecological intervention, and 93 control households in neighboring villages. Regression analysis of food security indicators found that both agroecological practices significantly predicted higher food security and dietary diversity for smallholder households: the one-third of farming households who incorporated legume residue soon after harvest were almost three times more likely to be food secure than those who had not incorporated crop residue. Qualitative semi-structured interviews with 33 house- holds identified several pathways through which crop diversifi- cation and crop residue incorporation contributed to household food security: direct consumption, agricultural income, and changes in underlying production relations. These findings pro- vide evidence of agroecology’s potential to address food inse- curity while supporting sustainable food systems.

Beyond Ecological Synergies: Examining the Impact of Participatory Agroecology on Social Capital in Smallholder Farming Communities (2020)

Moses M. Kansanga, Isaac Luginaah, Rachel Bezner Kerr, Esther Lupafya & Laifolo Dakishoni
Published in International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology.

The pivotal role of social capital in smallholder agriculture is widely acknowledged. The growth effect of social capital manifests in how networks and trust facilitate access to productive resources and knowledge sharing among farmers. While sub-Saharan Africa is considered a storehouse of rich social capital, recent literature indicates its rapid depletion due mainly to the rise of capitalist agriculture and concomitant reorganization of the relations of production that characterize smallholder agriculture. Agroecology is an alternative approach to agriculture aimed at addressing the adverse impacts of capitalist agriculture, including improving farmer-to-farmer networks. In this paper, we draw on longitudinal data from a five-year participatory agroecology intervention in Malawi using Difference-in-Difference (DID) to compare the social capital endowment of agroecology-practicing households (n = 514) and a control group of non-agroecology households (n = 400). We further employed linear regression to examine the relationship between social capital and agroecology adoption. Results from the DID analysis show a positive and statistically significant change in mean social capital for participatory agroecology households (β = 0.325, p< 0.001) compared to non-agroecology households (β = 0.108) after accounting for theoretically relevant factors. Overall, the average treatment effect of the intervention on social capital was positive (β = 0.217, p< 0.01). We also found a bidirectional relationship between social capital and adoption of agroecology practices (β = 0.12, p< 0.001). These findings reveal the positive inroads of agroecology beyond the farm-level and demonstrate the potential for policymakers to leverage these benefits to promote sustainable agriculture.

Participatory agroecological research on climate change adaptation improves smallholder farmer household food security and dietary diversity in Malawi (2019)

Rachel Bezner Kerr, Joseph Kangmennaang, Laifolo Dakishoni, Hanson Nyantakyi-Frimpong, Esther Lupafya, Lizzie Shumba, Rodgers Msachi, Godfred Odei Boateng, Sieglinde S. Snapp, Annita Chitaya, Esther Maona, Tinkani Gondwe, Paul Nkhonjera, Isaac Luginaah.
Published in Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment.


This study examines whether agroecological farming practices, when employed by highly vulnerable households in sub-Saharan Africa, can improve food security and dietary diversity. The research involved a four-year study with 425 smallholder households, selected purposively based on high levels of food insecurity and/or positive HIV status. The households carried out agroecological experiments of their own choosing over a four-year period. Baseline (n = 306) and follow-up (n = 352) surveys were conducted in 2011 and 2013 respectively to assess changes in farming practices, food security, crop diversity and dietary diversity. Longitudinal mixed effects models were used with 203 matched households to estimate determinants of change in food security and dietary diversity at the population level. Qualitative interviews and focus groups were also conducted to provide depth to the survey findings. The findings show that participatory agroecology experimentation increased intercropping, legume diversification and the addition of compost, manure and crop residue amendments to the soil. Intercropping was associated with food security and the use of organic soil amendments was associated with gains in dietary diversity in bivariate analysis. Household food security and dietary diversity increased significantly over a 2-year period. Importantly, multivariate models showed that spousal discussion about farming was strongly associated with increased household food security and dietary diversity. Households who discussed farming with their spouse were 2.4 times more likely to be food secure and have diverse diets. Addition of compost or manure to the soil significantly influenced dietary diversity. These findings indicate that poor, vulnerable farmers can use agroecological methods to effectively improve food and nutritional security in sub-Saharan Africa. The study also highlights how linking agroecology to participatory research approaches that promote farmer experimentation and gender equity also lead to greater health and well-being. The study sheds light on how agroecological approaches can rapidly improve food security and dietary diversity, even under conditions of acute social, health or ecological stress. It draws attention to issues of equity and farmer-led approaches in addressing food security and nutrition.

Repairing rifts or reproducing inequalities? Agroecology, food sovereignty, and gender justice in Malawi (2019)

Rachel Bezner Kerr, Catherine Hickey, Esther Lupafya & Laifolo Dakishoni
Published in Journal of Peasant Studies.


This Malawi study examines whether agroecology can be effectively used by smallholders to address food sovereignty. We build on the concept of the metabolic rift, arguing that repairing this rift includes social relations. Agroecological methods can be important strategies, but are labour and knowledge intensive, and require addressing power dynamics within and beyond households in order to address food sovereignty. The case study included participatory methods of dialogue, experimentation and horizontal learning to foster change. We argue that feminist concepts of intersectionality and participatory praxis are central to mobilizing agroecology to build food sovereignty and work to transform social relations.

Farming for change: developing a participatory curriculum on agroecology, nutrition, climate change and social equity in Malawi and Tanzania (2019)

Rachel Bezner Kerr, Sera L. Young, Carrie Young, Marianne V. Santoso, Mufunanji Magalasi, Martin Entz, Esther Lupafya, Laifolo Dakishoni, Vicki Morrone, David Wolfe & Sieglinde S. Snapp
Published in Agriculture and Human Values.


How to engage farmers that have limited formal education is at the foundation of environmentally-sound and equitable agricultural development. Yet there are few examples of curricula that support the co-development of knowledge with farmers. While transdisciplinary and participatory techniques are considered key components of agroecology, how to do so is rarely specified and few materials are available, especially those relevant to smallholder farmers with limited formal education in Sub-Saharan Africa. The few training materials that exist provide appropriate methods, such as compost making, but do not explain relationships and synergies between nutrition, social inequalities, climate change and agroecology. Some food sovereignty and agroecology courses aim at popular political education for those with more formal education. Here we describe the process of development of an innovative curriculum, which integrates agroecology, nutrition, climate change, gender and other dimensions of social equity across 2 weeks of training explicitly for smallholders in southern Africa with limited formal education. The curriculum is highly participatory; we use concepts in popular education, transformative and experiential-based learning, and theatre. It is also integrative; we link agroecology with climate change, human and soil nutrition, gender, and related components of social equity. Developed in partnership with Malawian farmers, community development experts and academics from five countries, the curriculum was piloted with 520 smallholder farming households in Malawi and Tanzania, and evaluated using qualitative techniques. Clashes of language, cultural norms, and terminology were as great of a challenge as agreeing on and conveying technical information, to weave into a coherent whole. However, farmers who participated in the curriculum training demonstrated high interest, comprehension of material and interest in immediate application to their lives.